By: Pilar Vigil MD, PhD, FACOG, Contributors: Juan Pablo del Río MD, Natalia Molina BMed, Pedro Gutiérrez MD, Carolina Lyon Nrs, Yanara Bernal Nrs, Felipe G. Serrano BSC,. MSC (2019)
This text analyzes the anatomy of ovulation and the structures involved in this process. It reviews the role of the central nervous system and its communication through the neuroendocrine axis with the gonads and endocrine glands involved in ovulation. The concept of ovarian activity in the lifetime of women, the events that occur in intrauterine life, puberty, and during the reproductive age were discussed. It analyzes the concept of the fertile window and the processes that surround it, mentioning certain biomarkers. Special relevance was given to the role of cervical mucus as a tool for recognizing ovulation. Also, the relationship between hormones and the brain is mentioned. Finally, in relation to future perspectives, we expose the need for more research in order to improve women’s health and well-being, recognizing ovulation as a sign of health.